Thursday, 3 November 2011

First lab work shows the Dipole forces shaping the embryonic brain

>>>> AUTHORS NOTE: This page shows evidence for the neurodevelopmental dipole, for my proposed mechanism see HERE.<<<<<

Vincent Fleury a French embryologist, the Research director at Centre National de Recherche Scientififique in Paris has developed a novel filming technique which can capture the live movements of early gestation chick embryos. His findings propose that the filmed motion is the pulsing from a transition boundary between the dipole/quadrupole field throughout the formation of the head in the chick embryo. This is of course consistent with the predictions the approach advocated here makes since 2004.



Also see this post for proposed EM mechanisms in development




The developmental labs at Dundee university, Scotland are also modelling the dipole flow. Please note theirs is more general to the entire embryo. The point is their modelling also requires on electrostatic or EM dipole to produce an explanation for early developmental forces.



BACKGROUND TO DR VINCENT FLEURY AND STRUCTURALISM

Fleury has long advocated (and written volumes) for a view of neurodevelopment  called “structuralism”  which was first proposed by Darwin but has been controversial with geneticists (who often misrepresent it by referring to old models) seeking a bottom up solution for evolution. The concept of structuralism as it stands today is that the facility to promote structural integrity is highly conserved to work hand in hand with gene expression for developmental mechanics. i.e. Genes transcribe larger emergent principles or physical structures in what is currently considered a multi-level top down/bottom up system. Fleury and others, argues this conserving for emergent structures is the reason most creatures are tetrapods (four-limbed forms). Fleury studied chemical vortices in early stage Gastrulation to arrive at this position.

The developmental biology Professor PZ myers slated Fleury initially in 2009 as “crackpot” science incapable of producing lab work to back up his claims. Yet Fleury produces competent, in depth works on developmental genetics and his colleages are innovating new lab methods (Myers even misrepresnts, Fleury as being incapable of labwork when Fleurys personal webpage shows many dozens of photos taken in his lab !). Myers then follows this by posting Dr Fleury's artistic attempt to try and express a concept describing the chemical flow. PZ myers clearly is playing foul, making false accusations, then not illustrating this image is an analogy picture. Considering the depth and competence of this work it was contained in, which would be considered a very good introduction to the state of the art in this field, Myers is either incompetent or intent on misrepresentation of these ideas.



OK, back on track. What is interesting is Fleury has independently predicted the brains dipole structure. I think we have something in common. i.e. A common graphic i use.



Fleury also discusses cortex evolution as becoming increasingly spherical as I did in my 2009 paper.  Myself and Fleury have both arrived at this concept independently from each other with an entirely different approach.  Fleury from studying embryology derived this from the bottom up, and myself tearing apart and meta analyzing NIH databases, trying to find the cause for lateralization of cortical function from the top down (my paper here)  Whats even more interesting is that as we deducted our way into the system from either end we both ended up arriving at the conclusion of of a dipole/quadrupole interaction for most of the brains development quite independently.  As of now we differ on opinions as to the type of dipole (Fleury, Electro-osmotic, Myself, Magnetohydrodynamic). Although important, these are finer points to be sorted out later.  The fact is that the big picture, the dipole/quadrupole interaction is a pretty interesting convergence considering neither of our fields of interest, methods, approaches and aims are similar in any way.

 (NOTE: some people still look at these graphics and try to explain the similarity away in terms of least action principle or fractals etc, however if you care to read into the work presented here further in previous posts, it will soon become clear that the "entire" radial glia which produces this does have magnetic dipole mechanisms. A  more brief summary is here) 

DAWKINS AND MYERS GRUDGING ADMISSIONS

In bioscience history rewards are given to those who focus on little parts so teachers deter researchers to understand entire architectures. Lee Smolin points out too much emphasis now occurs on teaching students good scientists focus on details This small thinking method is now common. PZ Myers hatchets Fleury for a structuralist approach, Brian Goodwin passes away 4 weeks later and PZ Myers shifts his position in just 4 weeks.

"we know now that a lot of details of morphology are directly affected in subtle and not-so-subtle ways by the genetics of the organism. But I think we can also make a case that the modern molecular biological approach is also missing a significant element." 

Richard Dawkins also opposed Goodwin, but still concedes.  Clearly Myers and Dawkins are conflicted

 "it's important that somebody like Brian Goodwin is saying that kind of thing, because it provides the other extreme, and the truth probably lies somewhere between..........It's a genuinely interesting possibility that the underlying laws of morphology allow only a certain limited range of shapes.".

1. FLEURY'S LAB FINDINGS

Fleury used mathematical techniques taken from PIV (live motion vectors in filming) to derive the conclusion that the forces he is filming in the developing brain are hydrodynamic  dipole pulses, interrupted by quadrupole flow.

Anybody familiar with my work will immediately realize this is what has been predicted by dipole neurology theory. The folds in the Dipole above (A) are described by the left/right embryo dipole vectors (for motion in equation) taken from PIV trackings. As the neural folds collide a "reflection" condition occurs resulting in 4 quadrupole motions described by




"the mathematical formula describing magnetic fields could also be used to model fields of vectors representing the hydrodynamic flow of embryonic cells. When the two sides collided, the embryonic cells were subject to forces that can be described as those of two magnets oriented head on, which resulted in the formation of the head."

So we see a shift from dipole to quadrupole state within the early development of the chick head. This is not exactly consistent with my predictions. I would have thought there would originate a quadrupole flow initially from the ventricular zone, which had to evolve radial glia pulsing mechanisms, to overcome the earths static field. Any required amplification of the pulse to overcome the static field, leads to a fragmentation of the timing for quadrupole coherence, so the chemical gradients then switch back and forward between left/right (hemisphere top view down) assymetrical dipole vectors.

However this is early days for this area of science. Perhaps the first quadrupole was too weak for the PIV tracking to detect. I also predict that later in development the quadrupoles will develop linearity as the limbic system is composed of coherent layers. Linearising of the quadrupole can allow more complexity of the spherical harmonic type morphology proposed for the limbic system.  Basically the dipole/ linear quadrupole integration for cortex / limbic system.  But the situation above could be different for the chick embryo with the cortex to cerebellum size ratio being far higher than humans. I have not yet produced a clear cerebellum prediction but so far it appears to be a second but reduced dipolar/quadrupole integration.  As the brain develops further (this labwork is early development) each morphological structure more fully there should be a more complex interaction of fields to represent formation of each structure.

If this is not clear what this means is the dipole neurology theory now has the following.

The predicted mechanism proven by the cortex wide pulsing of calcium waves in development (see   Weissman, TA et al; 2004 in post below)

The second independent findings consistent with my 2003, 2009 structural prediction that spherical harmonics (the components of quadrupoles when linearized) dictate the form for the lateral ventricles and the limbic system (first here).

Actual live lab work illustrating in motion the hydrodynamic dipole and quadrupole are present in the developing embryonic brain at the first stages predicted. That should now eliminate those who wish to argue that the cortex dipole structure arises from a collection of least action principles or fractals.

For more information Fleury's recent paper with the labwork is here.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110818101740.htm

2. INDEPENDENT GENETIC WORK TO DESCRIBE THE TRANSCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE

Independent work has also found the genetic basis for structuralism at the same time is consistent with Fleuries work and Cortical EMS theory..  : From Blue Whales to Earthworms, a Common Mechanism Gives Shape to Living Beings ScienceDaily (Oct. 13, 2011)  

If anybody pulls the paper for this groundbreaking work "The Dynamic Architecture of Hox Gene Clusters" they will notice that the Hox gene clusters produce a linear sequence which dictates precisely the form but stops at the head. It appears that there is no sequence for forebrain development. Obviously the missing instructions are for the Radial Glia. So it is clear at this stage that evidence is not being made to fit, the predicted mechanism for the Dipole, Quadrupole formation is chemical gradients pulsing through connexin hemichannels (see below).  i.e. The genetic sequence is predicted to cluster (and conserve) for this mechanism at a high level in the development hierarchy. As these models and findings just produce the head formation, none of this as of yet is providing a strong basis to support tetrapod form resulting for vortices. However that aspect has always been out-with the scope for the Dipole/Quadrupole models proposed for brain structure.

finally a nice quote from

A New Science of Qualities
A Talk With Brian Brian Goodwin [4.29.97]

"All the great scientists, Einstein, Feynman, you name them, would say intuition is the way they arrived at their basic insights, their new ways of putting parts together into coherent wholes. The famous guys are allowed to say this. The rest of us have to pretend that we're really basing everything on hard fact"

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Wednesday, 5 October 2011

Magnetic fields of radial glial in Prenates: Mechanisms for a cortical dipole structure by VZ calcium waves

There are 6 papers in the pipeline for this as a PHD project, but this dense paper which has been peer reviewed is the best representation of the work so far.

Magnetic fields of radial glial in Prenates: Mechanisms for a cortical dipole structure by VZ calcium waves

Felix Lanzalaco (a,c), Wajid Zia. (a,b)

(a) Psychology Cares Scotland, Firdon Crescent , Glasgow G15, Scotland (b) Dept of Clinical Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (c) Open University, Milton Keynes.

http://www.dipoleneurology.org.uk/__Pages/PDF/Dipole%20Neurology%20preprint%20jan%202009.pdf


also available from NQ journal archives

You will find my meta analysis of primary cortical content in this paper. i.e.


PRESENTED TO 

Integrative Approaches to Brain Complexity
October 7 - 10, 2009

Organizers:

Seth Grant, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, UK
Nathaniel Heintz, HHMI/The Rockerfeller University, USA
Jeffrey Noebels, Baylor College of Medicine, USA

http://www.neuroscience.cam.ac.uk/news/article.php?permalink=996f8a0687



Note that maximal ionotropic asymmetry of Sodium (Na+) gating glutamate neurons and Chloride  (Cl-) gating GABA are distributed at the proposed temporal poles.  Although the scans of thomspon are pinpointing NMDA receptors which gate Mg+ these postsynaptic receptors come with the standard glutamate AMPA Na+ receptor, so highest density of AMPA receptors is still at the right temporal pole.  The highest density of all ionotropic neurons is at both temporal poles (exceeding frontal and parietal lobe), so if the schizophrenia image were adjusted (by fading in diagram above) for this what would be left is the the highest density of ionotropic neurons in cortex are reverse asymmetry for GABA (Na+)  / GLUTAMATE (CL-) at left right temporal poles (as in lower part of diagram above) NOTE: error in image left frontal lobe not highlighted for high neuron density


I would like to make it clear, that I can build a case for the dipole model without the distributions extracted here, and that I have always been open minded to complex distributions more common in neurons. i.e there are so many ion layers that the brain works on relative gradients rather than simple positive/negative charges is basic neuroscience. From a developmental view in evolution these bilateral radial glia systems arose from sea environments, where there is an abundance of calcium (radial glia) and sodium chloride.  It is interesting GABAA and AMPA receptors (the most plentifiul and ionotropic gate Cl- and Na+ into the postsynaptic membrane with equivalent but opposite voltages gradients.

Anybody familiar with the madelung constant for such salt structures will be aware just how equally balanced these ions are, even in solution.  We are finding more and more evidence that these ionotropic neurons are resulting in division / multiplication scaling power laws for inhibition and excitation which are more mathematical than hebbian in structure. My idea was that for a dipoles computational function to achieve exponentiation at either pole the very basic lateralized components would require basic mathematical principles to facilitate scaling on top of each other to build coherent convergent/divergent structures that would be useful in a large scale asymmetrical sparse coding computer. Along the lines of HTM, fusters cognits and Hintons Deep belief networks except its key to bear in mind the asymmetry has to over-arch these schemes as this allows the very powerful exponential functions of minimum and maximum descriptions recruited in universal computation theory. The cortex alone perhaps may be an induction machine which is linearized by the known linearization functions of the limbic system.
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Wednesday, 31 August 2011

Are Cortical Magnetic models ready for experimental verification ?


>>>> AUTHORS NOTE: This page provides the dipole mechanism, for evidence of neurodevelopmental dipole see HERE .<<<<<

Dipole neurology neurodevelopment theory could not have been built without existing works proposing the key mechanism that glial astrocytic cells could play in producing cortex wide magnetic fields, that is when the astrocytes are in the developmental state of a brain wide radial glia scaffold. Mainly pioneered by Marcos Banaclocha's Neuronal Activity Associated Magnetic fields (NAAMF) 2003, then expounded 2007

Following on, were increase in publications on biophysics of glia I refer to:  Ingber & Nunez, 2010 , Bokkon & Banaclocha, 2010 , Pereira 2012, Størmer & Laane, 2009Størmer et al,, 2011

Referring to the above authors, Prof Ingber of Caltech supports the proposal that glial magnetic models are a key missing link in brain function. His primary contribution is to focus on mathematical statistical models to calculate the aggregation of these proposed magnetic interactions.

His recent paper is the best physics based summary for magnetic models, and summarizes that enough theoretical work has been completed for lab verification to begin.

Pereira & Furlan provide a more neuroscience based overview for glial magnetic processes.

So the stage is already well set that Ca2+ waves can be a magneto-hydrodynamic fluid in adults. But the problem is the astrocytes are not connected across the brain for a wide range field, so only cortical column models are proposed by banachlocha. This following work provides experimental data which supports my prediction that calcium waves in radial Glial (early astrocytes) give rise to magnetic pulses across the entire cortex surface. i.e. This is a clear mechanism which can give rise to a cortex wide magnetic field in neurodevelopment.


Calcium Waves Propagate through Radial Glial Cells and Modulate Proliferation in the Developing Neocortex
Tamily A. Weissman1, Patricio A. Riquelme1, Lidija Ivic2, Alexander C. Flint2, Arnold R. Kriegstein, 1, 2, 3,

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627304004970
The developing brain has a stem cell derived scaffold throughout it called "radial glial" through which calcium ions pulse. This scaffold works just like the astrocytes in that it is an interconnected synctium for ions to pulse through and so macroscopic magnetic fields can arise. The mechanism is so similar that the radial glial eventually dissolves from stem cells to become astrocytes. The researchers already knew there was ion pulsing, in neurodevelopment but due to practical and ethical reasons they had to stimulate an entire hemisphere to pulse calcium ions by the method described below.


(A) Partial whole brains were prepared by removing ventral structures to open the ventricles, allowing for tissue perfusion and calcium indicator loading. Schematic shows partial whole-brain preparation and electrode placement. A, anterior; P, posterior; e, ganglionic eminence; v, ventricle; c, cortical anlage. (B) Low-magnifi cation view of Fluo-3 fl uorescence shows a mechanically stimulated calcium wave (electrode displacement of 5 μm) that propagates across the hemisphere. Higher-magnifi cation view shown in (C). Scale bar, 100 μm (B), 50 μm (C). This wave can be requested as a Supplemental Movie.


If this is not clear, what all this means is that the cortex dipole theory has a mechanism. If an entire magnetic field can pulse through each hemisphere there can be opposite poles in each hemisphere. Due to the tendency for magnetic fields to orientate the domains they influence into poles as large as the fields themselves, I predict the fields are ordering the ferroelectric components of the unmyelinated axons (microtubules and voltage gate potassium channels) into a dipole configuration.

A common objection raised to me in the past was that these glial pulses are too weak to overcome the earths static background field. After discussing this with various experts including Michael Persinger, I was informed a weak pulsed field has dynamics which can spike to overcome a more powerful static field. Lester ingber has also independently produced statistical mechanical mathematics in the paper linked above to describe this aggregation of magnetic fields in more detail than I could.

After all the controversy on the idea of a large scale quantum mind, there may still be some truth to aspects of the concept in neurodevelopment while neurons are not firing. As soon as immature neurons migrate along the scaffold and start to operate, this scaffold fades and so does the interconnected calcium ion field. Not surprising then why milk is so important for infants, but of all elements, why did nature choose calcium to produce magnetic fields? Its not hard to understand the principle.

Large magnetic fields can orientate larger biological structures together due to their ability to pass through liquids and biological material. This is one of the most highly effective ways to build a coherent structure nature could come up with. All that would be required is that developmental guidance has a means to resist these magnetic forces. The dipole neurology theory predicts that the immature ionotropic GABA (-ve chloride ion containing) and GLUTAMATE (+ve sodium ion gating) neurons are pulled apart as opposite charges in the magnetic field. This is proposed as the reason why these neurons are lateralized apart from each other at the brains temporal poles and why immature neurons have extra ion concentrations. In the paper we are reviewing the authors state

"Several neurotransmitters are present in the developing VZ at this stage and are possible candidates for a diffusible propagating signal, including glutamate, GABA (LoTurco et al., 1995), and taurine (Flint et al., 1998)"
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627304004970

Why then do the migrating neurons have adhesion proteins ?  These proteins dont actually have a mechanism to push the neurons up the scaffold. All they can do is release hold on the glial fiber temporarily. It is predicted that the adhesion are there to resist the magnetic field from the radial Glia. Nature then has a means to control the migration by modulating the degree of adhesion strength, perhaps by degree of Astrotactin release.



"quantitation of the dynamics of movement indicate that the leading process does not "pull" the neuron, rather the neuron moves by release and reformation of the adhesion junction beneath the cell soma. The nucleus remains in the posterior, moving with the soma, and does not undergo "nuclear migration"

As to calcium ions for a magnetic field, rather than say iron. Recent work from the genome centre using blue gene computers has dated the origin of glial cells at the same time neurons become ion based and replicated into large assemblies in bilateral sea creatures. Fish mostly. At this time the most abundant element in the ocean were salt (sodium and chlorine), organic iron and deposits of calcium carbonate that older sea creatures left behind after the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event of 440–450 Ma. It’s this abundance of calcium that was responsible for creatures developing bilateral (symmetrical) hard structures and then skeletons. There is simply an abundance of the material.

Ok enough background here are the results of the lab work. In the final figure, note the increasing size of the waves, through the entire hemisphere





Figure 1. 
Spontaneous Calcium Waves Propagate through the Embryonic Ventricular Zone
(A) Schematic drawing illustrates cortical anlage at embryonic day 16 (E16). LV, lateral ventricle; VZ, ventricular zone; CP, cortical plate; IZ, intermediate zone; SP, subplate; MZ, marginal zone.
(B–D) Individual spontaneous waves occurring within the VZ. (VZ is delineated at the left of each initial frame.) Waves initiate in VZ cells and propagate dorsally and medial/laterally. Scale bar, 25 μm.
(E) Selected individual cell transients (1–5) from (D) are represented as ΔF/F traces. Calcium levels in cells 4 and 5 (furthest from the initiation point) increase as levels in cells 1–3 decay.
(F) Some cells show spontaneously oscillating calcium levels, for example, cells c1 and c2 from (C) and cell d from (D).
(G) Spontaneous waves occur in a pattern of temporal clusters. This partially schematized image represents a three-dimensional field from an E16 coronal slice, with the ventricular surface sloping away in the lower part of the image. In this field, 11 waves were imaged in 8 min of observation. Shapes are drawn to approximate the spatial extent of each wave. The first four events (blue) occurred within the first minute, while five later events (black) were clustered within the fourth minute of observation. White events did not appear to occur within temporal clusters. Several events occurred in endfeet contacting the ventricular surface. Scale bar, 50 μm.
(H) Temporal clustering is shown in graphical form with the number of events plotted as a function of time (0.5 min bins).







Figure 7.
Radial Glial Calcium Waves May Be Involved in VZ Proliferation
(A) Cells that take up Lucifer yellow appear to be in S phase of the cell cycle. BrdU immunostain of VZ cells reveals several BrdU-positive, Lucifer yellow-positive cells. Scale bar, 20 μm.
(B) Developmental profile displaying changes in wave dynamics during the period of increasing neurogenesis in the VZ. In this three-dimensional graph, time is displayed along the x axis. Stimulated waves travel further (light gray bars) and involve more cells (dark gray bars) at later stages as shown. ATP sensitivity in the VZ also increases during this period (red bars). (E14 time point is with 100 μM, while E16 time point used 1 μM.) Spontaneous wave frequency also increases during the period of neurogenesis (blue bars). See text for numbers and error bars. (n.d., no data for this time point.)
(C) BrdU immunostain (green) with concanavalin A cellular stain (red) shows BrdU-positive VZ cells that are presumably in S phase of the cell cycle. Such images were used for quantification of proliferation experiments. Scale bar, 30 μm.
(D) In organotypic slice culture, the ATP receptor antagonist suramin (50 μM) significantly decreased VZ cell proliferation at E16 (dark gray bars), when VZ calcium waves are robust, shown as the percentage of BrdU-positive cells (normalized to control) that incorporated BrdU in S phase during a 1 hr pulse. However, at E14 (light gray bars), when waves are small and ATP sensitivity in the VZ is very low, suramin had no effect on proliferation. As expected, proliferation is decreased at both ages in the presence of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, 20.5 μM), an antimitotic agent.
(E) The phospholipase C activator PMT (200 ng/mL) rescues the antiproliferative effect of suramin.

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Monday, 21 March 2011

Independent model proposes spherical harmonics for lateral ventricle development (Monica K. Hurdal and Deborah A. Striegel 2009)

Neurodevelopmental mathematicians Monica K. Hurdal and Deborah A. Striegel have produced a paper in September 2009 that proposes the lateral ventricles can be described in neurodevelopment by spherical harmonics. Paper is called "Chemically Based Mathematical Model for Development of Cerebral Cortical Folding Patterns"

http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000524
http://www.math.fsu.edu/~mhurdal/posters/hbm10prolate36x48.pdf

The approach is clearly "structuralist"..from the paper.

One argument that has been presented against the intermediate progenitor (traditional) model is that an ‘‘elaborately choreographed set of developmental instructions [regulating the production of IP cells] would be required to account for the tremendous complexity of human cortical convolutions’’ [7]. The beauty of the GIP global intermediate progenitor (GIP) model model is that it provides an uncomplicated approach that relates to a biologically plausible mechanism of pattern formation. It uses chemical morphogens that may be governed by specific genes to control IP cell production, resulting in the ability to predict the placement and directionality of sulcal pattern formation.








Basically we see that by using the spherical harmonic for the lateral ventricle they then predict the main cortical features. This is of course consistent with the dipole neurology 2003 Limbic EMS (electromagnetic multipole solution) model that is based on spherical harmonics for the lateral ventricles as well as all limbic system appendages. But the similarity ends there. We disagree on where the prolate poles are taken from and my proposal that all the limbic morphology is the result of my proposed Magnetohydrodynamic model. I think at the current stage of knowledge a more comprehensive prediction for the correct spherical harmonics should be based on morphology and biophysical mechanisms before proceeding to mathematical modelling. i.e. to start with the approach.




Observable analysis of primary limbic /cortical system regions when mirrored and rebuilt using spherical harmonic components. The entire limbic system can be modelled from variations of spherical harmonics the components of electromagnetic multipole expansions. (a) This shows that the thalamus has a basic hourglass lobe form, and has a third ventricle between it, which is a toroid. (b) The third ventricles and caudate nucleus are mirrored produce sheared discs. Hippocampus is similar but has been left out for simplicity. These are added to thalamus third ventricle from (a). (c) the induseum griseum of the corpus callosum, a continuation of the hippocampus has toroidal structures. These are added to (a) and (b). (d) (a,b,c) are enclosed in the cortex which is a large lobe structure. (cortical surface folds left out due to modelling restrictions.) Again a toroidal structure occurs in midline. (see section 1.2) Consistent with the concept that it is only the limbic system which can be modelled in this manner the induseum griseum and cortex although possessing some of the structures (toroid’s and lobes) don’t appear to possess an overall pattern in line with any of the spherical harmonics. The indiseum griseum has four toroid’s and cortex structure overall cannot be approximated. Figure References (a Adapted from Best, B., 2009) (b Adapted from Sundsten,, 2009) (c Adapted from Nieuwenhuys et al., 1988) (d Adapted from Williams and Gluhbegovic,1980)

The point of the above exercise was to show how the limbic system when not intruded by the brainstem and skull has a spherical harmonic type morphology. If you read the rest of mypaper (chapter 3) I then try to illustrate the respective regular oscillations, delta, alpha, theta and lower beta range operate in the developed brain using a harmonic mode principle and this is a predicted mechanism and mathematical description for subconscious information sorting and pattern overlay. Its basically a fourier/wavelet like information distribution using time dependent multiplexing through axons that is predicted as the deeper method for limbic system function. i.e Importantly we are discussing here the predicted reason why its conserved in terms of information processing.

Such processing structure allows "holistic" or model free patterns to be represented in line with a Pribaum like holographic scheme.  This will be scale free in terms of keeping connections in sync. i.e. Integrating spikes to tonic timings across wide regions of the brain.  Its function  computationally can be described in many ways. At the highest level its not hard to derive a model for creative cross associations that iterate episodic memories into autobiographic narrative across synchronized limbic areas. i.e. Imagination. This is highly powerful from a computational perspective as many cutting edge Artificial Intelligence programmers look to uncover the basis for human creativity. The Spherical harmonics processor is the part of ourselves which seeks to remain whole and integral so patterns can overlay without interference.


Wavlets spectra (linear) arise when we analyse internet communication systems, and as would be expected easily destroyed by non linear inputs.  Taken from (stoev 2005,On the wavelet spectrum diagnostic for Hurst parameter estimation in the analysis of Internet traffic). It is predicted that the developed limbic system is multiplexing in this manner but the details are beyond the scope of this posting which concerns developmental morphology.

The location for the predicted multiplexing using continuous harmonic modes of Delta, Alpha, theta and low beta is predicted for thalamus, medial components of the basal ganglia and the septal (medial) end of the hippocampus (there is more on the computation in section 3 and 4 of my paper). Why exclude lateral limbic areas from this modelling ?  Basically my reasoning is that where limbic components are lateral and integrate with the cortex this is where i propose a developmental boundary interaction between MHD Linear quadrupole and regular MHD dipole, and so at the boundary the structure is an integration of two different types of MHD functions which is yet to be clarified mathematically, and I would consider hard to integrate such inverse functions without computational modelling.

The first predicted harmonic models I propose for the lateral and 3rd ventricles as well as the development of the medial limbic system neuron and axon configurations that follow (staying in harmonic configuration through the first prenatal oscillations). These were chosen to accommodate the development of four ventricles but a 3 mode series may be used if we discover the cerebellum (4th ventricle) is not time synchronized with the development of 3rd and the two lateral ventricles.


To make it visually clearer how we transfer this to a 3rd ventricle.


(1 and 2 above), take in a toroidal morphology to a modeller (2 can be extended so the centre closes)  then compress it as occurs in a spherical harmonic system (3), then shear and cut (3 and 4) to accommodate the fact all this evolved over the confines of jaw intrusion.  From simple physical constraints as would occur in evolving systems MHD harmonic forces can transform to 3rd and lateral ventricle structures.

These would be described by colatidue and longitude, y1/3,


with the mode function of the poles, derived as a Longitudinal linear waves in the case of lateral ventricles as Y2/3 or  Y1/3 for 3rd and lateral ventricle mode interactions.   To simplify it would be predicted the linear waves in the following diagram, if we are looking at the ventricular zone on the sagittal plane. This linear function will then break down and fragment at its boundary before it reaches the cortex surface, which i will explain next.


BTW its should be noted deriving harmonic modes from MHD is is common for high frequencies as the application for most MHD is astrophysics,

http://iopscience.iop.org/0295-5075/94/1/10005

and this can be applied apparently to lower energy systems.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetohydrodynamics

it may be necessary to use a kinetic model which properly accounts for the non-Maxwellian shape of the distribution function. However, because MHD is relatively simple and captures many of the important properties of plasma dynamics it is often qualitatively accurate and is almost invariably the first model tried.

The point is the solution offered by myself is relatively painless from a mathematical and biophysics perspective, and relies only on simple re-arrangements of spherical functions derived from Calcium ion flow through radial glia and the proliferation zones. The power of a multipole expansion is that it allows nature a relatively simple mechanism to layer associative multiplexing, by using principles of the harmonic quantum oscillator in development to emerge as a classical quantum oscillator in the developed brain.

As to the actual cortical folding itself these would be predicted not as a harmonic (as stated in the Hurdal and Streigel paper) but a boundary effect resulting from mode breakdown (at the harmonic boundary) i.e. The turing like patterns of the cortex surface I propose are magnetic dipole domains (the ising ferroelectric models for this have a similar mathematical description to turings reaction diffusion). This is where I veer of from the current accepted work in neurodevelopment. I substitute MHD functions as the overarching mechanics. However this is still compatible with previous positions based on turing models.




Figure 6: (a and c) shows thin layer ferromagnetic and fluid patterns are similar to cortical folds and turing patterns. Underneath the thin layer patterns columns form similar to cortical columns.(c) The brain veins are precisely aligned to these folds, more so than arteries. (d) As veins carry paramagnetic blood are these aligned due to magnetic forces ? (see section 2.5)

These cortical patterns (which are sometimes random) are predicted to result from an inversion of the underlying harmonic mode. My reasoning is that calcium ion flow is forced to evolve a flow which can push against the earths static field. To achieve this field strength, ion flow becomes fragmented and time independent (meaning it loses the harmonic modes) inverting itself into more powerful dipole pulses (see work by fleury above). This is (one reason) why the cortex has magnetic dipole type structure.  

For skeptics who claim the magnetic dipole appearance is a co-incidence, it should be borne in mind that the cortex surface is predicted latterly (in past decade) to have magnetic mechanisms at play, as remnants of the radial glial (astrocyes) are being proposed as the missing key to where short term memory is sustainted  (Ingber & Nunez, 2010 , Bokkon & Banaclocha, 2010 , Pereira & Furlan, 2010, Størmer & Laane, 2009). The key point is we are not without the required radial glia magnetic mechanism here, and by studying morphology further we can further differentiate between a cortical dipole formation which arises due to electro-osmosis or MHD force.

Some questions for the authors (They received my communication in 2009). Their mathematics involves recruiting a classic wave mechanic equation (Helmholtz) and timelimiting its function for the prolate spheroidal wave functions,



As mentioned at the end of this post here, I would advocate the use of harmonic wavefront analysis for the limbic systems development. However in this paper the explanation for how such truncation of time maps or bandpassing these functions maps out to developmental time have not been worked to remain consistent with the limbic / cortical development relationship famously mapped out to a statistical relationship across many species by Finlay / Darlington.   As I predict the harmonic modes will map out in the manner i state above, perhaps future research can clarify which mathematical model is more consistent with Finlay / Darlingtons amazingly wide ranging statistical maps.

The authors will not communicate with me on this matter, so I can only guess that Hurdal and Streigel either do not accord with my approach here and/or competitive elements are at play giving rise to constraints. I mentioned  to them I had been working on this since 2003 (accepted to NQ archives May 2009), while their paper states they are the first to reach this conclusion in september 2009.   I have been about 50/50% successful co-operation wise with other scientists so far, which is not a bad result considering how competitive this field is.

NOTE:  This model I propose here Limbic EMS and harmonics in general was never a hypothesis I had been comfortable with anyway,  when it popped out the result I found in 2003. I had come in strongly from the cortex dipole end to break the brain system apart and there was nothing at all going for the concept of spherical harmonics except it appeared like a good fit.  However it was important to publish this in 2009 with its problems, as the limbic system would have to remain consistent with the approach taken for Cortical EMS and the MHD models.  It is more reassuring that independent work now exists coming from a more rigorous maths and developmental view which tries to build a case for Limbic models derived from spherical harmonics.


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